Keyword(s):Synthesis and Resynthesis Techniques , Interdisciplinary Artistic Work
Rudolf Pfenninger and Oskar Fischinger were the first to synthesise sounds by making drawings on film. Pfenninger presented his invention in 1931 and, from 1932, the German EMELKA studios published the first film with graphically synthesised music. But the artist realised music for only five films; nevertheless, his techniques were to be used until in the 1970s by, for example, Norman MacLaren.
Les pionniers du son synthétique au cinéma by Philippe Langlois presents the history of this technique.
Levin, Thomas Y. (2004). 'Des sons venus de nulle part' Rudolf Pfenninger et l'archéologie du son synthétique