Keyword(s):Classification of Sound
The author introduces a system for generalised sound classification and similarity using a machine-learning framework. Applications of the system include automatic classification of environmental sounds, musical instruments, music genre and human speakers. In addition to classification, the system may also be used for computing similarity metrics between a target sound and other sounds in a database. We discusses the use of hidden Markov models for representingHthe temporal evolution of audio spectra and present results of testing the system on classification and retrieval tasks. The system has been incorporated into the MPEG-7 international standard for multimedia content description and is therefore publicly available in the form of a set of standardised interfaces and software reference tools for developers and researchers.