Quatre ╔coutes

Musicology of Electroacoustic Music [MEM]  >  Schaefferian Theory  ]

This term is one of the key theoretical concepts in Schaeffer’s theory. There are four modes of listening (╔couter, Ou´r, Entendre, Comprendre) which can be arranged in a table with four sections numbered from one to four. They arise from the crossing over of two dualisms which are encountered universally in every perceptual activity: the Abstract/Concrete dualism and the Objective/Subjective dualism (a confrontation between the object of perception and the activity of the perceiving consciousness). Schaeffer represents them as follows:

Abstract Concrete
4. COMPRENDREá 1. ╔COUTER Objective
3. ENTENDREá 2. OU¤R Subjective
  1. ╔couter, is listening to someone, to something; and through the intermediary of sound, aiming to identify the source, the event, the cause, it treats the sound as a sign of this source, this event (Concrete/Objective).
  2. Ou´r, to perceive by the ear, to be struck by sounds, it is the crudest level, the most elementary of perception; so we "hear", passively, lots of things which we are not trying to listen to nor understand (Concrete/Subjective).
  3. Entendre, here, according to its etymology, means showing an intention to listen [Úcouter], choosing from what we hear [ou´r] what particularly interests us, thus "determining" what we hear (Abstract/Subjective).
  4. Comprendre, means grasping a meaning, values, by treating the sound like a sign, referring to this meaning as a function of a language, a code (semantic hearing; Abstract/Objective).

These four modes can be summarised more or less in this sentence: "I heard (ou´r) you despite myself, although I did not listen (Úcouter) at the door, but I didn’t understand (comprendre) what I heard (entendre)." (Paraphrase of Michel Chion (1983). Guide des Objets Sonores. Eds. Buchet/Chastel, Paris. 1995 translation by John Dack/Christine North.)


See also:

Causal Listening, Listening Strategy, Modes of Listening, Reduced Listening, Schaefferian Theory, Semantic Listening, Technological Listening



English - Español - Français - Deutch - Italiano

Alphabetical order - Chronological order

Chion, Michel (1983). Guide des objets sonores, Pierre Schaeffer et la recherche musicale
Schaeffer, Pierre, Reibel, Guy, Ferreyra Beatriz, (1998 (1967)). SolfŔge de l’objet sonore


the cancer drug gleevec in usa quetiapine 300mg about buy tizan online http://afchine.org/?ba=805123 more prednisolone no prescription caverta in uk buy viraday usa buy waklert uk in usa lithosun sr usa megalis 20mg for sale bupropion hcl sr info about bactrim 960 mg http://hautesalpes.org/?xff=267497 azithromycin without prescription overnite shipping more info about bupropion 300 142 nexium 40 mg buy mirtazapine femora letrozole more prescription drugs femara buy cheap nexium india best buy for nexium bactrim generic 80 mg lipitor online generic drug for bactrim ds in mayami discount aldactone generic orlistat xenical prilosec prices lumigan 0.03 price of accutane naltrexone 1 mg about buy kamagra oral jelly canada gefitinib tabs azithromycin how much does it cost in france 10 mg norvasc in canada piracetam prescription ciprofloxacin available generic http://afchine.org/?ba=176934 $4 bupropion dapoxetine for sale buy lipitor canada pharmacy ciprofloxacin in chinesse buy urimax without a prescription http://hlt-evaluation.org/?ght=524764 orlistat wholesale in canada order prilosec 5 mg lipitor in usa nexium from canada buy gleevec online uk in india naltrexone mexican pharmacy cost lipitor diflucan no prescription cost of lipitor premarin .625 buy ampicillin usa doxycycline 10mg metronidazole tab 500 buying piracetam in the us in mayami bupropion xl 150 in united states