Quatre ╔coutes

Musicology of Electroacoustic Music [MEM]  >  Schaefferian Theory  ]

This term is one of the key theoretical concepts in Schaeffer’s theory. There are four modes of listening (╔couter, Ou´r, Entendre, Comprendre) which can be arranged in a table with four sections numbered from one to four. They arise from the crossing over of two dualisms which are encountered universally in every perceptual activity: the Abstract/Concrete dualism and the Objective/Subjective dualism (a confrontation between the object of perception and the activity of the perceiving consciousness). Schaeffer represents them as follows:

Abstract Concrete
4. COMPRENDREá 1. ╔COUTER Objective
3. ENTENDREá 2. OU¤R Subjective
  1. ╔couter, is listening to someone, to something; and through the intermediary of sound, aiming to identify the source, the event, the cause, it treats the sound as a sign of this source, this event (Concrete/Objective).
  2. Ou´r, to perceive by the ear, to be struck by sounds, it is the crudest level, the most elementary of perception; so we "hear", passively, lots of things which we are not trying to listen to nor understand (Concrete/Subjective).
  3. Entendre, here, according to its etymology, means showing an intention to listen [Úcouter], choosing from what we hear [ou´r] what particularly interests us, thus "determining" what we hear (Abstract/Subjective).
  4. Comprendre, means grasping a meaning, values, by treating the sound like a sign, referring to this meaning as a function of a language, a code (semantic hearing; Abstract/Objective).

These four modes can be summarised more or less in this sentence: "I heard (ou´r) you despite myself, although I did not listen (Úcouter) at the door, but I didn’t understand (comprendre) what I heard (entendre)." (Paraphrase of Michel Chion (1983). Guide des Objets Sonores. Eds. Buchet/Chastel, Paris. 1995 translation by John Dack/Christine North.)


See also:

Causal Listening, Listening Strategy, Modes of Listening, Reduced Listening, Schaefferian Theory, Semantic Listening, Technological Listening



English - Español - Français - Deutch - Italiano

Alphabetical order - Chronological order


enalapril malleate low cost piracetam bupropion deutschland dapoxetine online natural bupropion hci quinine sulphate without prescription http://reseau-terra.eu/?gag=802672 malegra dxt prices prilosec generic http://pacen.in2p3.fr/?poc=49959 azithromycin without prescription paypal price of tretinoin cream http://sfc-classification.net/?hty=197070 nexium 40mg http://mjz-57.fr/?her=489606 ciprofloxacin 500mg tablets buy lovegra online uk in uk enalapril 2.5 mg best price canada nexium bactrim ds acne dilantin 50mg bactrim ds prescribing cabergoline 0.5 mg rogaine shampoo sale bupropion prices more purchase simvastatin doxycycline purchase prilosec otc mg piracetam mexico in uk omeprazole more nexium discounts http://pacen.in2p3.fr/?poc=963181 norvasc price in mexico best pricing for viread more simvastatin prescription on line ciprofloxacin in chinesse buy a-ret http://tg.auf.org/?har=692544 150mg fluconazole 5-htp piracetam where can i buy viread zocor 30 mg lowest cost simvastatin 20mg silagra tadacip norvasc mg dilantin 60 mg http://www.stop-it.it/spip.php?asr=677785 http://sfc.asso.fr/?mar=728945 flagyl pills more info diflucan tabs more info prilosec price buy bactrim without prescription doxycycline 100 mg capsule michigan pharmacy femara in mexico bactrim ds tablet information about fluconazole tab 150mg more info about modalert 200 information about order omeprazole online about prilosec cheap http://www-lisic.univ-littoral.fr/?zx=221669 info about drug vasotec