Historically, the spatialisation of sound in concert listening situations has been realised manually. Research, informed to a significant degree by the possibilities offered by recent computer hardware and software, as well as an increased interest in the use of multitrack formats (which create practical problems in manual spatialisation and frequently exhibit innovative aesthetic approaches to spatialisation), has developed various means of automating some or all aspects of the way sonic material is presented spatially. This may range from a musician programming spatial strategies for a piece in an object-oriented environment such as Max/MSP or in the development of specific and dedicated hardware/software solutions such as the Richmond Sound Design Audiobox.
See also:Ambisonic, Diffusion, Loudspeaker Orchestra, Octophony
Bibliography: Ascione, Patrick (1991). La polyphonie spatiale
Truax, Barry (1996e). Diffusion assistée par ordinateur