A binaural recording is one where the microphones are placed in the position of the ears, or in a simulation of this. Binaural recordings are generally intended for audition over headphones.
Bibliography: Cheng, Corey I. (2001). Moving Sound Source Synthesis for Binaural Electroacoustic Music Using Interpolated Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs)
Corringham, Viv (2003). Vocal Strolls: Voicing the Soundscape
Malham, David G. (2001). Toward Reality Equivalence in Spatial Sound Diffusion