Sound Production and Manipulation [SPM]  >  Electroacoustic Instruments  ]

Any grouping of electronic equipment intended for sound synthesis. Such equipment usually incorporates a combination of oscillators, filters, mixers, envelope generators, white noise generators, switches, reverberation units, etc. The term is now generally applied to digital sound synthesizers as well as their analogue antecedents.

All analogue synthesizers use the principle of voltage control to determine the values of the various sound parameters. Sequences of control voltages may be produced by a keyboard or by a sequencer where the voltages are pre-set and then generated in a fixed sequence. The abbreviations VCO, VCA and VCF are used to describe voltage-controlled oscillators, amplifiers and filters, respectively.

Digital synthesizers utilise techniques of digital sound synthesis, ranging from those which implement specific synthesis algorithms, to those (called samplers) based on reproducing digitally sampled sounds, to those which are programmable and therefore can implement a variety of digital signal processing (DSP) techniques. Increasingly, however, stand-alone hardware digital synthesizers (other than keyboards and the like) are being replaced by systems implemented in software on general-purpose computers. (Source: Barry Truax - Handbook for Acoustic Ecology CD-ROM Edition. Cambridge Street Publishing, 1999 - CSR-CDR 9901)




- Introduction à l’histoire et à l’esthétique des musiques électroacoustiques: Session 3 - Du sonore à l’artistique: le timbre musical reconsidéré ( French )



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ASUAR, José Vicente (1972b). La segunda generación de música electrónica (The electronic music second generation)
Babbitt, Milton (1964). An Introduction to the R.C.A Synthesizer
Battier, Marc (2002a). De la phonographie à la lutherie numérique. L’épiphanie du son artificiel
BERMÚDEZ COSTA, Juan (1977). Nueva Generación de Instrumentos Musicales Electrónicos (The new generation of electronic music instruments)
Bossis, Bruno, Couprie, Pierre (2003). Tutorials : sound and music applications
Chion, Michel (1994). Musique, Médias et Technologies
Clozier, Christian (2001). The Gmebaphone Concept and the Cybernéphone Instrument
Dedman, Malcolm (1984). Electronic Instruments
Deutsch, Herbert A. (1976). Synthesis: An Introduction to the History, Theory, and Practice of Electronic Music
Dierbach, Charles (1983). Some Initial Ideas on the Control of Digital Sound Synthesis Through AI Techniques
Dury, Rémi, Faber, Francis (2001). Musique électroacoustique, musique assistée par ordinateur et jeu instrumental: vers de nouveaux instruments pédagogiques
Ernst, David (1977). The Evolution of Electronic Music
Georgaki, Anastasía (1999a). À la recherche de la voix-Protée: penser la voix de synthèse aujourd’hui
Georgaki, Anastasía (2004). Virtual Voices on Hands: Prominent Applications on the Synthesis and Control of the Singing Voice
Griffiths, Paul (1979). A Guide to Electronic Music
Howe, Hubert S. (1972). Compositional Limitations of Electronic Music Synthesizers
Keane, David (1980b). Tape Music Composition
Kemper, Christoph, Stelkens, Jörg (1999). Entwicklung und Konzepte moderner digitaler Synthesizer am Beispiel des Access Virus (Development and concepts of a modern digital synthesizer: the Access Virus)
Laliberté, Martin (2004). Aux origines des “nouvelles technologies musicales” : virtuosités et archétypes
Longton, Michael (1981). Composition After Technology: The Real Time Digital Music System at U. Vic
Machover, Tod, Giugno, Giuseppe di (1985). Entretien avec Giuseppe di Giugno
Manning, Peter (1992). Towards a New Age in the Technology of Computer Music
Merlier, Bertrand (2003). La main, le geste instrumental et la pensée créative. CG3D, contrôleur gestuel tridimensionnel
Miranda, Eduardo Reck (1994). From Symbols to Sound: AI-based Investigation of Sound Synthesis
Mumma, Gordon (1975). Live-Electronic Music
PAVÓN SARRELANGUE, Raúl (1981). La Electrónica en la Música ... y en el Arte (Electronics in Music ... and the Arts)
Pfitzinger, Hartmut R. (1999). Sprache aus dem Synthesizer (Speech from a synthesizer)
Risset, Jean-Claude (1999c). Évolution des outils de création sonore
Russcol, Herbert (1972). The Liberation of Sound
Schrader, Barry (1982). Introduction to Electro-acoustic Music
Sear, Walter (1972). A Guide to Electronic Music and Synthesizers
Stockhausen, Karlheinz (1974). Die Zukunft der elektroakustischen Apparaturen in der Musik (The future of electronic apparatus in music)
Vaggione, Horacio (1982). Le courant et le maintenu
Vail, Mark (1993). Vintage Synthesizers: Groundbreaking Instruments and Pioneering Designers of Electronic Music Synthesizers
Waugh, Ian (2000). Quick Guide to Analogue Synthesis