Sound Production and Manipulation [SPM]  >  Sound Shaping  ]

The process by which one signal is used to modify another. The controlled signal is referred to as the ’carrier’, and the controlling signal as the ’modulator’. It is of the greatest importance in both sound synthesis and signal processing.

The two main parameters of a sound to which modulation is commonly applied are those of amplitude (loudness) and frequency. Amplitude modulation of a signal causes changes in loudness in that signal. If the control signal is a slow regular waveform (e.g. a sine wave) the result is a tremolo - similar to (and often confused with) vibrato, except that there is no pitch deviation. Once the frequency of the modulator is raised above 10 to 15 Hz the tremolo amalgamates into a complex sound with added frequency components derived from the pitches of carrier and modulator. An irregular or transient control signal is generally associated with envelope generation.

Frequency modulation causes the pitch of the carrier to rise and fall according to the shape of the modulating waveform. If this is, as above, a slow regular waveform, the result is vibrato if the depth of the modulation is low, otherwise becoming a wide siren-like effect. If the modulating waveform is a series of discrete steps, the result is a series of discrete pitches. Particularly complex sounds arise when the frequency of the modulator is close to or even higher than that of the carrier. (Source - Richard Dobson (1992). A Dictionary of Electronic and Computer Music Technology. Oxford University Press.)

Ring modulation allows for the sum and difference of two input frequencies to be combined to create a new sound. Often one of these frequencies is at a sub-audio level allowing the creation of a sound of two similar frequencies, frequently with noisy textural characteristics.


See also:

Amplitude, Frequency, Frequency Modulation Synthesis



English - Español - Français - Deutch - Italiano

Alphabetical order - Chronological order

Bateman, Wayne (1980). Introduction to Computer Music
BERMÚDEZ COSTA, Juan (1977). Nueva Generación de Instrumentos Musicales Electrónicos (The new generation of electronic music instruments)
Chadabe, Joel (1975). The Voltage-Controlled Synthesizer
Geslin, Yann (2001). Le studio 123
Lai, Antonio (1999). La fonction compositionnelle des modulateurs en anneau dans {Mantra} (Karlheinz Stockhausen)
Moles, Abraham A. (1957). Machines à musique. L’apport des machines électronique et électroacoustiques à la nouvelle sensibilité musicale.
NUÑEZ, Adolfo (1993). Informática y Electrónica Musical - 2da. edición, revisada (Musical Electronics and Informatics - 2nd edition, revised)
Pottier, Laurent (2003). {Straps} : pièce d’Eryck Abecassis pour ensemble et électronique en concert
Risset, Jean-Claude (1996b). Real-World Sounds and Simulacra in my Computer Music
Risset, Jean-Claude (2005a). Sur l’impact de l’œuvre scientifique, technique et musicale de John Chowning


bupropion sr xl buy sildenafil citrate online usa exemestane in mexico generic for doxycycline hyclate ciprofloxacin er 500 mg more info generic prilosec otc amlodipine besylate generic price of gleevec in california simvastatin 20 buy azithromycin overnight mail buy generic mirtazapine online simvastatin 10 mg ranitidine tablets 75mg in mayami more info about azithromycin 500 mg tab azithromycin pack price buy rapamune bimatoprost prices us pharmacy flagyl pills norvasc tablet more discounts on nexium dilantin capsules in new york bupropion 300mg xl watson vasotec no prescription modalert with master card canadian lipitor more prilosec otc 20mg ciprofloxacin hcl 500mg tab xenical cheap piracetam femara 7.5mg olanzapine about sildenafil citrate online pharmacy about esomeprazole mexico generic brand for zocor in france ciprofloxacin no prescription ciprofloxacin 1000mg information about ciprofloxacin 500mg tablets zocor 10 mg in mexico buy lovegra online uk cost of imatinib gleevec order sulpitac online ranitidine tablet orlistat wholesale medicine bactrim ds 800 buy sulpitac online over the counter diflucan in mayami azithromycin order caverta online prednisolone pricing omeprazole 10 mg otc more info about ranitidine 150mg price bupropion cvs in new york olanzapine 7.5mg over the counter metronidazole