Sound Production and Manipulation [SPM]  >  Sound Shaping  ]

The process by which one signal is used to modify another. The controlled signal is referred to as the ’carrier’, and the controlling signal as the ’modulator’. It is of the greatest importance in both sound synthesis and signal processing.

The two main parameters of a sound to which modulation is commonly applied are those of amplitude (loudness) and frequency. Amplitude modulation of a signal causes changes in loudness in that signal. If the control signal is a slow regular waveform (e.g. a sine wave) the result is a tremolo - similar to (and often confused with) vibrato, except that there is no pitch deviation. Once the frequency of the modulator is raised above 10 to 15 Hz the tremolo amalgamates into a complex sound with added frequency components derived from the pitches of carrier and modulator. An irregular or transient control signal is generally associated with envelope generation.

Frequency modulation causes the pitch of the carrier to rise and fall according to the shape of the modulating waveform. If this is, as above, a slow regular waveform, the result is vibrato if the depth of the modulation is low, otherwise becoming a wide siren-like effect. If the modulating waveform is a series of discrete steps, the result is a series of discrete pitches. Particularly complex sounds arise when the frequency of the modulator is close to or even higher than that of the carrier. (Source - Richard Dobson (1992). A Dictionary of Electronic and Computer Music Technology. Oxford University Press.)

Ring modulation allows for the sum and difference of two input frequencies to be combined to create a new sound. Often one of these frequencies is at a sub-audio level allowing the creation of a sound of two similar frequencies, frequently with noisy textural characteristics.


See also:

Amplitude, Frequency, Frequency Modulation Synthesis



English - Español - Français - Deutch - Italiano

Alphabetical order - Chronological order

BERMÚDEZ COSTA, Juan (1977). Nueva Generación de Instrumentos Musicales Electrónicos
NUÑEZ, Adolfo (1993). Informática y Electrónica Musical - 2da. edición, revisada


about fluconazole tab 100 mg purchase x-vir in mexico generic prilosec capsule in new york aldactone online information nexium without prescription canadian nexium in mexico about dilantin 60 mg vasotec enalapril in france nexium without prescription information about cheap aldactone more buy vasotec malegra fxt femara price non-prescription tretinoin bupropion hci sr zantac cost prilosec otc cheap purchase premarin online in india over the counter orlistat levetiracetam in canada buy vardenafil hcl metronidazole overnight information about prilosec sale metronidazole tab 250mg letrozole prescription info about cost for doxycycline prilosec 40 mg buy generic bimatoprost 0.03 purchase armodafinil online bupropion sr australia enalapril maleate tablets buy zithromax online with mastercard buy tadalafil powder in new york buy generic gleevec in canada information about megalis 10 mg nexium 20mg in canada bupropion mexico buy stendra uk dilantin no prescription info about best price on ciprofloxacin 750mg about buy vega amlodipine 20 mg doxycycline 300mg information buy iressa in usa more info about buy provigil alertec modalert omeprazole cheap canada silagra 100 mg buy kamagra oral jelly online uk info about prilosec generic buy voltaren piracetam online